Yesterday, I wrote about the newest edition of Economic Freedom of the World, which is my favorite annual publication.
And what can we learn from this year’s review of state tax policy? Plenty.
…the specifics of a state’s tax structure matter greatly. The measure of total taxes paid is relevant, but other elements of a state tax system can also enhance or harm the competitiveness of a state’s business environment. The State Business Tax Climate Index distills many complex considerations to an easy-to-understand ranking.
That’s the theory, but what about the results?
Here are the best and worst states.
If you pay close attention, there’s a common thread for the best states.
The absence of a major tax is a common factor among many of the top 10 states. …there are several states that do without one or more of the major taxes: the corporate income tax, the individual income tax, or the sales tax. Wyoming, Nevada, and South Dakota have no corporate or individual income tax (though Nevada imposes gross receipts taxes); Alaska has no individual income or state-level sales tax; Florida has no individual income tax; and New Hampshire, Montana, and Oregon have no sales tax.
By the way, both Utah and Indiana are among the nine states with flat tax systems, so every top-10 state has at least one attractive feature.
Indeed, half of the states on that unfortunate list are part of the “Class-Warfare Graduated Tax” club.
Not a desirable group, assuming the goal is faster growth and more jobs.
The Tax Foundation’s report also is worth reading because it reviews some of the academic evidence about the superiority of pro-growth tax systems.
Helms (1985) and Bartik (1985) put forth forceful arguments based on empirical research that taxes guide business decisions. Helms concluded that a state’s ability to attract, retain, and encourage business activity is significantly affected by its pattern of taxation. Furthermore, tax increases significantly retard economic growth when the revenue is used to fund transfer payments. Bartik concluded that the conventional view that state and local taxes have little effect on business is false. Papke and Papke (1986) found that tax differentials among locations may be an important business location factor, concluding that consistently high business taxes can represent a hindrance to the location of industry. …Agostini and Tulayasathien (2001) examined the effects of corporate income taxes on the location of foreign direct investment in U.S. states. They determined that for “foreign investors, the corporate tax rate is the most relevant tax in their investment decision.” Therefore, they found that foreign direct investment was quite sensitive to states’ corporate tax rates. Mark, McGuire, and Papke (2000) found that taxes are a statistically significant factor in private-sector job growth. Specifically, they found that personal property taxes and sales taxes have economically large negative effects on the annual growth of private employment. …Gupta and Hofmann (2003) regressed capital expenditures against a variety of factors… Their model covered 14 years of data and determined that firms tend to locate property in states where they are subject to lower income tax burdens.
None of this research should come as a surprise.
Businesses aren’t moving from California to Texas because business executives prefer heat and humidity over ocean and mountains.
The bottom line is that tax rates matter, whether we’re looking at state data, national data, or international data.
Let’s close by sharing a map from the report. Simply stated, red is bad and teal (or whatever that color is) is good.
P.S. My one complaint about this report from the Tax Foundation is that it doesn’t include the overall fiscal burden. Alaska and Wyoming score well because they have small populations and easily fund much of their (extravagant) state budgets with energy-related taxes. If data on the burden of state government spending was included, South Dakota would be the best state.
P.P.S. Unsurprisingly, Americans are moving from high-tax states to low-tax states.
P.P.P.S. It’s also no surprise to find New Jersey in last place.